The value is expected to be a decimal number.
In the following example we specify that new files should be readable and writable by the user owning the file. In addition new directories should be searchable by the user. Group members should be able to read new files and search created directories. Others should not be able to access new files or directories at all. First you have to come up with three digits between 0 and 7. The first one defines user access, the second one group access and the third one world access.
We want read, write and search permissions for the user: We want read and search permissions for the group: We want no access at all for everyone else: The last step is to convert this octal number to its decimal representation. We'll use the bc command line tool to do that:. LaunchControl saves you the trouble of coming up with a bit mask and converting it to decimal.
Just select the bits you'd like to set. Every selected bit is a revoked permission. This key will be ignored when specified for an agent. Using this key you can execute the job in a chroot 2 jail.
A launchd Tutorial
As far as the job is concerned, the directory provided with this key is the root of the filesystem. This implies that you need copies of all files required for the job inside this directory. This includes libraries, frameworks, command line tools and configuration files. Setting the value of this key to true will stop this propagation, allowing the child processes to survive their parents. This key may me used in combination with KeepAlive to run a job every n seconds while a certain condition applies.
This key controls the behavior of timers created by the job. By default on OS X Mavericks version Batching the firing of timers with similar deadlines improves the overall energy efficiency of the system. If this key is set to true, timers created by the job will opt into less efficient but more precise behavior and not be coalesced with other timers. Run a job at an altered scheduling priority.
Load, Unload or Enable, Disable Launch Agents and Daemons for Junos Pulse Update.
Possible values range from to The default value is 0. Lower nice values cause more favorable scheduling. This section explains how to acquire information about launchd jobs and how to load, unload, start and stop them. All of this can be accomplished using the command line utility launchctl , but you will see that it is far easier using LaunchControl. To quote Nathan Grigg:. Whether you are new to writing launchd agents or you already have some system in place, go buy LaunchControl now. All examples refer to agents.
Should you want to work with daemons you have to use sudo launchctl instead of launchctl. You will be prompted for the admin password when working with daemons. We will get some information about a job with Label com. We issue the command launchctl list , which returns a long list of currently loaded jobs. To search for our specific job with the label com.
This results in a more detailed output in a JSON-like format. To find out if a job's Disabled key has been overridden we query the override database using the xpath command line utility. Its first argument is the name of the file to query, its second argument the query itself. You have to replace the job label in the query. You can enter the command as a single line by ommitting this character and the newline.
We get a single hit, which means that the Disabled key is overridden. Its value is true. We would receive No nodes found if the key had not been overriden. We have already learned that launchd loads jobs automatically, daemons at boot time, agents when the user logs in. The following example loads the agent com.
If this happens the job has either set the Disabled key to true or the job has been disabled in the override database. In either case you can force launchctl to load the job like this: Should the job be disabled or should the Disabled key be overridden in the override database the button will have its label changed to "Force Load" automatically. The following example unloads the agent com. Unloading a job with LaunchControl is similar to loading a job. When the currently selected job is loaded, the "Load" button will have its label changed to "Unload":.
Sometimes you may want to start a job regardless of its run conditions.
This section explains how to do that. You either misspelled the Label of the job or forgot to load it in the first place.
Permissions and Security
When launchd is about to load a job it will check if it has the Disabled key set. Disabled jobs will not be loaded. But the value of this key can be overridden. OSX While you will always be able to switch a job's permanent status between enabled and disabled, you cannot trivially remove it from the override database again.
The procedure is different for agents and daemons. You'll need the label of the job you want to remove. In this example: For agents type:. Starting with OSX Additionally the database is read only when launchd starts. Modifications to the database will be overwritten when launchd quits. Because of this modifications have to be done in recovery mode. LaunchControl can not be used to remove jobs from the override database. On OSX Hold these keys until the Apple logo appears. You should see a message that System Integrity Protection has been disabled.
You should see a message that System Integrity Protection has been enabled. Finding out why a launchd job does not perform as expected can be a time consuming task if you have to do it manually. Using LaunchControl you can troubleshoot a job in a matter of seconds. Most of the time just selecting the job will highlight the problem and give advice on how to fix it.
Remember to always re load a job definition after changing it. Just saving it will leave launchd oblivious to the change. It is important to remember that launchd is responsible for turning a process into a background process. When referencing a shell script in Program or ProgramArguments make sure the script does not put the actual program into the background.
Some programs require special command line arguments something like --foreground to prevent them from daemonizing themselves. Use them and don't try to emulate their effects. If you want to write shell code, give it to the shell.
Mac OS X: Loading and Unloading with launchd
Instead of. The unix command sudo is used to run unix commands as a different user. If executed by an unprivileged non-root user it requires the user to enter a password. Obviously, when used by a LaunchAgent the password cannot be entered.
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Convert the agent to a daemon. Load the job manually and see what launchd has to say. The following example did not load because the job definition had the wrong permissions.